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YouTube is an American online video-sharing platform headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion; YouTube now operates as one of Google’s subsidiaries.

Founded: February 14, 2005, San Mateo, California, United States
Parent organization: Google (2006–)
Headquarters: San Bruno, California, United States
Founders: Jawed Karim, Steve Chen, Chad Hurley

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PayPal is an American company operating a worldwide online payments system that supports online money transfers and serves as an electronic alternative to traditional paper methods like checks and money orders.

Founded: December 1998, Palo Alto, California, United States
Subsidiaries: Venmo, Xoom Corporation, Honey, Braintree, iZettle, MORE
Founders: Elon Musk, Peter Thiel, Max Levchin, Ken Howery, Luke Nosek, Yu Pan

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GNU Wget

GNU Wget is a free computer program that retrieves content from web servers. It is part of the GNU Project. Its name derives from World Wide Web and get. It supports downloading via HTTP, HTTPS, and FTP. Its features include recursive download, conversion of links for offline viewing of local HTML, and support for proxies.

Function: Retrieve files via HTTP or FTP
Syntax: wget [-c|–continue] [-s|–spider] [-q|–quiet] [-O|–output-document file] [–header ‘header: value’] [-Y|–proxy on/off] [-P DIR] [-U|–user-agent agent] url
Example: wget -r –tries=10 -o log
License: GPLv3+
Written in: C

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A condensed or a narrow font is a typeface that features characters with narrow widths. Condensed fonts also have much narrower space between characters than a regular font. Also a condensed font can have a taller glyph design.

For example, The New York Times commissioned custom condensed single sorts for common long names that might often appear in news headings, such as “Eisenhower” or “Chamberlain”.

Color fonts

Color fonts are a new innovative font format label used to describe OpenType-SVG fonts.

OpenType-SVG fonts

OpenType-SVG fonts is a type of font in which some (or all) glyphs are represented as SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). OpenType-SVG format has earned a simpler and more popular label: Color Fonts.

OpenType-SVG fonts can be used with many different colors, gradients, and even animations.

OpenType-SVG format is available for use in Photoshop CC Versions 18.0+, Illustrator CC Versions 22.0.0+, and InDesign CC Versions 13.0.1+.

These can be installed as usual fonts.


A monospaced font, also called a fixed-pitch, fixed-width, or non-proportional font, is a font whose letters and characters each occupy the same amount of horizontal space
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Didone is a typeface category that emerged in the late 18th century. The category is also known as modern or modern face (in contrast to old style serif, which dates to the late medieval era).

Didone is characterized by:
– Straight (hairline) serifs without brackets.
– Vertical orientation of weight axes. (The vertical parts of letters are thick.)
– Strong contrast between thick and thin lines. (Horizontal parts of letters are thin in comparison to the vertical parts.)
– An unornamented, “modern” appearance.

Source: Wikipedia

Didones are marked by very high contrast between thick and thin strokes, hairline serifs, and a strong vertical axis. Best used large, they evoke modernism and high-class.

Tristram Shandy by Lawrence Sterne
Adobe Typekit

Outline font

An outline font or vector font is a digital collection of vector images, consisting of lines and curves defining the boundary of glyphs. Early vector fonts were used by vector monitors and vector plotters using their own internal fonts, usually with thin single strokes instead of thick outlined glyphs. The advent of desktop publishing brought the need for a universal standard to integrate the graphical user interface of the first Macintosh and laser printers. The term to describe the integration technology was WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get). The universal standard was (and still is) Adobe PostScript. Examples are PostScript Type 1 and Type 3 fonts, TrueType and OpenType.

Outline fonts have a major problem, in that Bézier curves cannot be rendered accurately onto a raster display (such as most computer monitors and printers), and their rendering can change shape depending on the desired size and position. Font hinting has to be used to reduce the visual impact of this problem, which require sophisticated software that is difficult to implement correctly. Many modern desktop computer systems include software to do this, but they use considerably more processing power than bitmap fonts, and there can be minor rendering defects, particularly at small font sizes. Despite this, they are frequently used because people often consider the processing time and defects to be acceptable when compared to the ability to scale fonts freely.

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Font hinting (also known as instructing) is the use of mathematical instructions to adjust the display of an outline font so that it lines up with a rasterized grid. At low screen resolutions, hinting is critical for producing clear, legible text. It can be accompanied by antialiasing and (on liquid crystal displays) subpixel rendering for further clarity.


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ASCII characters are:

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How to install fonts on Linux

Copy the font files (.ttf or .otf) to fonts:// in the File manager, or: Go into the /home folder, in the menu select View > Show Hidden Files, you will see the hidden folder .fonts (if not, create it). Now copy the font files there.

That’s it!

How to download free fonts from Kreativ Font

Kreativ Font provides designers and type enthusiast a growing selection of free fonts created by their own team, but also by various tyographers.

In order to be able to download them you have to:

1. Register a new account, it’s free.

2. Login to your newly created account.

3. Now go to Frebies page and start downloading. The fonts are zipped, so you’ll need to unzip them

Read here on how to install fonts on you OS of choice.

How to install fonts

Fonts come from many locations. They can come with your desktop publishing, word processing, or graphics software. You may have them on a CD OR they can be downloaded from the Web.

1) When fonts come with your software they are often installed at the same time the software is installed. Usually no further action is required by the user. However, if you are using some types of very specialized software (some CAD programs, older 1990s era software) the fonts that come with the software may be proprietary and not in TrueType, OpenType, or PostScript format. Those fonts can probably only be used with that specific software.

2) Fonts on CD or other disk need to be installed to your hard drive (unless you plan to always have that disk in the drive). The disk may come with an installation program for the fonts or you can use the methods described further down this page.

3) Fonts downloaded from the Web may be ready for installation; but, usually, fonts from the Web are stored in archives that must first be opened. This is where many new font finders run into problems. Occasionally fonts on disk may also be in archives so depends on operating system you have you need to choose the right one below.

How to install fonts on Apple Mac OS

How to install fonts on Microsoft Windows OS

How to install fonts on Linux

How to install fonts on Google Android OS

How to install fonts on Apple iOS

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How to remove / uninstall fonts

How to download free fonts from Kreativ Font

How to remove / uninstall fonts

In order to uninstall or remove fonts from Windows OS do the following:

1) Open the folder \ WINDOWS \ Fonts

2) Select the font you want to delete

3) Press the right mouse button, the shortcut menu, click Delete

4) In the next window confirm it

5) Attention! Be careful by removing fonts, some fonts required by the operating system to work: Courier New (including: Bold, Italic, Bold Italic), Arial (including: Bold, Italic, Bold Italic), Times New Roman (including: Bold, Italic, Bold Italic), Symbol, Wingdings, MS Serif, MS Sans Serif.

Type designer

A type designer (sometimes mistakenly referred to as a typographer), is a person who designs typefaces. Some type designers are employed by type foundries, or operate them. Others work independently.

Roman type

In Latin-script typography, roman is one of the three main kinds of historical type, alongside blackletter and italic. Roman type was modelled on a European scribal manuscript style of the 1400s, based on pairing Roman square capitals used in ancient Rome with Carolingian minuscules developed in the Holy Roman Empire.

During the early Renaissance, a publication would use either roman or italic type, not both. Today, roman and italic type are mixed, using roman for most of the text and italic for special purposes. Most typeface families include, at a minimum, roman, italic or oblique, and boldface character sets.

The word roman, without a capital R, customarily denotes Italian typefaces used during the Renaissance period and later upright typefaces derived from them. With a capital R, Roman refers to letter forms dating from ancient Rome.

Popular roman typefaces include Bembo, Baskerville, Caslon, Bodoni, Times New Roman and Garamond.



In typography, a descender is the portion of a letter that extends below the baseline of a font. The line that descenders reach down to is known as the beard line.

For example, in the letter y, the descender would be the “tail,” or that portion of the diagonal line which lies below the v created by the two lines converging. In the letter p, it is the stem reaching down past the o.

In most fonts, descenders are reserved for lowercase characters such as g, j, q, p, y, and sometimes f.

The parts of characters that extend above the x-height of a font are called ascenders.



In typography, an ascender is the portion of a minuscule letter in a Latin-derived alphabet that extends above the mean line of a font. That is, the part of a lower-case letter that is taller than the font’s x-height.

Ascenders, together with descenders, increase the legibility of words. For example, British road signs no longer use all capital letters due to ascenders.



In European and West Asian typography, the baseline is the line upon which most letters “sit” and below which descender extend.

In the example to the right, the letter ‘p’ has a descender; the other letters sit on the (red) baseline.

Most, though not all, typefaces are similar in the following ways as regards the baseline:

– capital letters sit on the baseline. The most common exceptions are the J and Q.
– Lining figures (see Arabic numerals) sit on the baseline.

East Asian scripts have no baseline; each glyph sits in a square box, with neither ascenders nor descenders. When mixed with scripts with a low baseline, East Asian characters should be set so that the bottom of the character is between the baseline and the descender height.


Sort (type)

In typesetting by hand compositing, a sort or type is a piece of type representing a particular letter or symbol, cast from a matrix mould and assembled with other sorts bearing additional letters into lines of type to make up a form from which a page is printed.

From the invention of movable type up to the invention of hot metal typesetting essentially all printed text was created by selecting sorts from a type case and assembling them line by line into a form used to print a page. When the form was no longer needed all of the type had to be sorted back into the correct slots in the type case in a very time-consuming process called “distributing”. This sorting process lead to the individual pieces being called sorts. It is often claimed to be the root of expressions such as “out of sorts” and “wrong sort”, although this connection is disputed.

During the hot metal typesetting era, printing equipment used matrices to cast type as needed during the typesetting process. The popular Linotype cast entire lines of text at once rather than individual sorts, while the less popular competitor Monotype still cast the sorts individually. Later, when phototypesetting replaced hot metal typesetting, sorts disappeared entirely from the mainstream printing process.

Movable type

Movable type is the system of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation).

The world’s first known movable type system for printing was created in China around 1040 A.D. by Bi Sheng (990–1051) during the Northern Song Dynasty (960–1127); When this technology spread to Korea during the Goryeo Dynasty in 1234, they made the metal movable-type system for printing. This led to the printing of the Jikji in 1377, the oldest extant movable metal print book. The diffusion of both movable-type systems was, however, limited: They were expensive, and required an enormous amount of labour involved in manipulating the thousands of ceramic tablets, or in the case of Korea, metal tablets required for scripts based on the Chinese writing system, which have thousands of characters.

Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg invented an improved movable type mechanical printing system in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould. The more limited number of characters needed for European languages was an important factor. Gutenberg was the first to create his type pieces from an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony—the same components still used today.
For alphabetic scripts, movable-type page setting was quicker and more durable than woodblock printing. The metal type pieces were more durable and the lettering was more uniform, leading to typography and fonts. The printing press was especially efficient for limited alphabets. The high quality and relatively low price of the Gutenberg Bible (1455) established the superiority of movable type in Europe and the use of printing presses spread rapidly. The printing press may be regarded as one of the key factors fostering the Renaissance and due to its effectiveness, its use spread around the globe.

The 19th-century invention of hot metal typesetting and its successors caused movable type to decline in the 20th century.

Glagolitic alphabet

The Glagolitic alphabet, also known as Glagolitsa, is the oldest known Slavic alphabet, from the 9th century.

The name was not coined until many centuries after its creation, and comes from the Old Church Slavonic glagolъ “utterance” (also the origin of the Slavic name for the letter G). The verb glagoliti means “to speak”. It has been conjectured that the name glagolitsa developed in Croatia around the 14th century and was derived from the word glagolity, applied to adherents of the liturgy in Slavonic.

The creation of the characters is popularly attributed to Saints Cyril and Methodius, who may have created them in order to facilitate the introduction of Christianity. It is believed that the original letters have been fitted to the original Macedonian Slavic, a dialect of Old Bulgarian.


Printing press

A printing press is a device for evenly printing ink onto a print medium (substrate) such as paper or cloth. The device applies pressure to a print medium that rests on an inked surface made of movable type, thereby transferring the ink. Typically used for texts, the invention and spread of the printing press are widely regarded as among the most influential events in human history, revolutionizing the way people conceive and describe the world they live in, and ushering in the period of modernity.

The world’s first known movable type printing technology was invented and developed in China by the Han Chinese printer Bi Sheng between the years 1041 and 1048. In Korea, the movable metal type printing technique was invented in the early thirteenth century during the Goryeo Dynasty. However, the Goryeo Dynasty of Korea printed Jikgi by using the similar method about 72 years earlier than Gutenberg, and Jikgi is the world’s first press-printing material that is extant. In the West, the invention of an improved movable type mechanical printing technology in Europe is credited to the German printer Johannes Gutenberg in 1450. The exact date of Gutenberg’s press is debated based on existing screw presses. Gutenberg, a goldsmith by profession, developed a printing system by both adapting existing technologies and making inventions of his own. His newly devised hand mould made possible the rapid creation of metal movable type in large quantities. The printing press displaced earlier methods of printing and led to the first assembly line-style mass production of books. A single Renaissance printing press could produce 3,600 pages per workday, compared to about 2,000 by typographic block-printing and a few by hand-copying. Books of bestselling authors such as Luther and Erasmus were sold by the hundreds of thousands in their lifetime.

Printing soon spread from Mainz, Germany to over two hundred cities in a dozen European countries. However the first book in English was not until 25 years later in 1475. By 1500, printing presses in operation throughout Western Europe had already produced more than twenty million volumes. In the 16th century, with presses spreading further afield, their output rose tenfold to an estimated 150 to 200 million copies. The operation of a press became so synonymous with the enterprise of printing that, by metonymy, it lent its name to a new branch of media, the press. The importance of printing as an emblem of modern achievement and of the ability of so-called Moderns to rival the Ancients, in whose teachings much of Renaissance learning was grounded, was enhanced by the frequent juxtaposition of the recent invention of printing to those of firearms and the nautical compass. In 1620, the English philosopher Francis Bacon indeed wrote that these three inventions “changed the whole face and state of the world”.

In Renaissance Europe, the arrival of mechanical movable type printing introduced the era of mass communication which permanently altered the structure of society. The relatively unrestricted circulation of information and (revolutionary) ideas transcended borders, captured the masses in the Reformation and threatened the power of political and religious authorities; the sharp increase in literacy broke the monopoly of the literate elite on education and learning and bolstered the emerging middle class. Across Europe, the increasing cultural self-awareness of its people led to the rise of proto-nationalism, accelerated by the flowering of the European vernacular languages to the detriment of Latin’s status as lingua franca. In the 19th century, the replacement of the hand-operated Gutenberg-style press by steam-powered rotary presses allowed printing on an industrial scale, while Western-style printing was adopted all over the world, becoming practically the sole medium for modern bulk printing.



In traditional typography, a font is a particular size, weight and style of a typeface. Each font was a matched set of metal type, one piece (called a “sort”) for each glyph, and a typeface comprised a range of fonts that shared an overall design.

In modern usage, with the advent of digital typography, “font” is frequently synonymous with “typeface”. In particular, the use of “vector” or “outline” fonts means that different sizes of a typeface can be dynamically generated from one design.

The word font derives from Middle French fonte and the term refers to the process of casting metal type at a type foundry.



The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word. The use of hyphens is called hyphenation. The hyphen should not be confused with dashes (‒, –, —, ―), which are longer and have different uses, or with the minus sign (−), which is also longer.

In terms of an orthographic concept, the hyphen is a single entity. In terms of character encoding and display, that entity is represented by any of several characters and glyphs (including hard hyphens, soft or optional hyphens, and nonbreaking hyphens), depending on the context of use (discussed below).

Although, as mentioned above, hyphens are not to be confused with en dashes and minus signs, there are some overlaps in usage (in which either a hyphen or an en dash may be acceptable, depending on user preference; discussed below) and in character encoding (which often uses the same character, called a “hyphen-minus”, to represent both the hyphen and minus sign entities; discussed below).



Spelling is writing or stating the letters and diacritics of a word. Words generally have accepted standard spellings which can vary regionally or nationally.[1][2][3] In the sense of a standard, spelling is one of the elements of orthography and a prescriptive element of alphabetic languages.

Spellings attempt to transcribe the sounds of the language into alphabetic letters, but phonetic spellings are exceptions in many languages for various reasons. Pronunciation changes over time in all languages, and spelling reforms are irregular in most languages and rare in some. In addition, words from other languages may be adopted without being adapted to the spelling system, non-standard spellings are often adopted after extensive common usage, and different meanings of a word or homophones may be deliberately spelled in different ways to differentiate them visually.

The emergence of an accepted standard spelling is a natural phenomenon. Standardized spelling establishes whenever a writing system develops in order to exhibit less variation and streamline written communication.



Orthography is the methodology of writing a language. It includes rules of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.

Most significant languages in the modern era are written down, and for most such languages a standard orthography has developed, often based on a standard variety of the language, and thus exhibiting less dialect variation than the spoken language. Sometimes there may be variation in a language’s orthography, as between American and British spelling in the case of English. If a language uses multiple writing systems, it may have distinct orthographies, as is the case with Kurdish, Uyghur, Serbian, Inuktitut, Turkish and Uzbek. In some cases orthography is regulated by bodies such as language academies, although for many languages (including English) there are no such authorities, and orthography develops through less formal processes.

Orthography is distinct from typography, which is concerned with principles of typesetting.


Letter case

In orthography and typography, letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also capital letters, capitals, caps, majuscule, or large letters) and smaller lower case (also minuscule or small letters) in certain languages. In the Latin script, upper case letters are A, B, C, etc., whereas lower case includes a, b, c, etc. Here is a comparison of the upper and lower case versions of each letter included in the English alphabet (the exact representation will vary according to the font used):

Upper Case: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Lower Case: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

The lower case is the more commonly used variant, contrasted by the upper case, which is used for special purposes, for example as the first letter of a sentence or a proper noun; however, the upper-case forms are regarded as the basic or citation forms of the letters. Languages have capitalization rules to determine whether an upper or lower case letter is to be used in a given context, but there can also be stylistic variation.



In typography, a glyph (/ˈɡlɪf/) is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing and thereby expressing thoughts, ideas and concepts. As such, Glyphs are considered to be unique marks that collectively add up to the spelling of a word, or otherwise contribute to a specific meaning of what is written, with that meaning dependent on cultural and social usage.

For example, in most languages written in any variety of the Latin alphabet the dot on a lower-case “i” is not a glyph because it does not convey any distinction, and an i in which the dot has been accidentally omitted is still likely to be read as an “i”. In Turkish, however, it is a glyph because that language has two distinct versions of the letter “i”, with and without a dot.

In Japanese syllabaries, a number of the characters are made up of more than one separate mark, but in general these separate marks are not glyphs because they have no meaning by themselves. However, in some cases, additional marks fulfill the role of diacritics, to differentiate distinct characters. Such additional marks constitute glyphs.

In general, a diacritic is a glyph, even if (like a cedilla in French, the ogonek in several languages or the stroke on a Polish “Ł”) it is “joined up” with the rest of the character.

Some characters, such as “æ” in Icelandic and the “ß” in German, would probably be regarded as glyphs: they were originally ligatures but over time have become characters in their own right, and these languages treat them as separate letters. However, a ligature such as “ſi”, which is treated in some typefaces as a single unit, is arguably not a glyph as this is just a quirk of the typeface, essentially an allographic feature, and includes more than one grapheme. In normal handwriting, even long words are often written “joined up”, without the pen leaving the paper, and the form of each written letter will often vary depending on which letters precede and follow it, but that does not make the whole word into a single glyph.

Two or more glyphs which have the same significance, whether used interchangeably or chosen depending on context, are called allographs of each other.



1. In typography, an asterism, from the Greek astēr (‘star’), is a rarely used and nearly obsolete symbol consisting of three asterisks placed in a triangle (⁂). It is used to “indicate minor breaks in text”, call attention to a passage, or to separate sub-chapters in a book. It is Unicode character U+2042 ⁂ asterism (HTML: ⁂). In Windows it is possible to use the key combination ALT+8258 to produce the character, but it has very limited support in the default fonts (Arial Unicode MS / Lucida Sans Unicode / MS Mincho).

2. Asterism is the name of a font created by Molly Jacques Erickson.



In typography, some ligatures can replace consecutive characters sharing common components and are part of a more general class of glyphs called contextual forms. A contextual ligature happens where the specific shape of a letter depends on context such as surrounding letters or proximity to the end of a line.



A swash is a typographical flourish, such as an exaggerated serif, terminal, tail, entry stroke, etc. on a glyph.[1] The use of swash characters dates back to at least the 16th century, as they can be seen in Ludovico Vicentino degli Arrighi La Operina, which is dated 1522.



A dingbat is an ornament, character or spacer used in typesetting, sometimes more formally known as a printer’s ornament or printer’s character. The term continues to be used in the computer industry to describe fonts that have symbols and shapes in the positions designated for alphabetical or numeric characters.

Dingbats were added to the Unicode Standard in June, 1993, with the release of version 1.1. The Unicode block for Dingbats is U+2700–U+27BF.



A grapheme is the smallest semantically distinguishing unit in a written language, analogous to the phonemes of spoken languages. A grapheme may or may not carry meaning by itself, and may or may not correspond to a single phoneme. Graphemes include alphabetic letters, typographic ligatures, Chinese characters, numerical digits, punctuation marks, and other individual symbols of any of the world’s writing systems.

The word grapheme is derived from Greek γράφω gráphō (“write”), and the suffix -eme, by analogy with phoneme and other names of emic units. The study of graphemes is called graphemics.

A grapheme is an abstract concept, similar to a character in computing. A glyph is a specific shape that represents that grapheme, in a specific typeface. For example, the abstract concept of “the Arabic numeral one” is a grapheme, which would have two different glyphs (allographs) in the fonts Times New Roman and Helvetica.



A symbol is an object that represents, stands for, or suggests an idea, visual image, belief, action, or material entity. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, or visual images and are used to convey ideas and beliefs.

Typographical symbols are graphemes that are part of a writing system that encodes a full spoken language are included in the Unicode standard, which also includes graphical symbols.



A tattoo is a form of body modification, made by inserting indelible ink into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment.Source:


Signage refers to the design or use of signs and symbols to communicate a message to a specific group, usually for the purpose of marketing or a kind of advocacy. A signage also means signs collectively or being considered as a group. The term signage is documented to have been popularized in 1975 to 1980.

Signs are any kind of visual graphics created to display information to a particular audience. This is typically manifested in the form of wayfinding information in places such as streets or on the inside and outside of buildings. Signs vary in form and size based on location and intent, from more expansive banners, billboards, and murals, to smaller street signs, sandwich boards and lawn signs. Newer signs may also use digital or electronic displays.

The main purpose of signs is to communicate, to convey information such that the receiver may make cognitive decisions based on the information provided. In general, signs may be classified according to the following functions:

Information: signs conveying information about services and facilities, such as maps, directories, or instructional signs.
Direction: signs showing the location of services, facilities, functional spaces and key areas, such as sign posts or directional arrows.
Identification: signs indicating services and facilities, such as room names and numbers, restroom signs, or floor designations.
Safety and Regulatory: signs giving warning or safety instructions, such as warning signs, traffic signs, exit signs, or signs conveying rules and regulations.

Signage is distinct from labeling, which conveys information about a particular product.



A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface. Typically posters include both textual and graphic elements, although a poster may be either wholly graphical or wholly text. Posters are designed to be both eye-catching and informative. Posters may be used for many purposes. They are a frequent tool of advertisers (particularly of events, musicians and films), propagandists, protestors and other groups trying to communicate a message. Posters are also used for reproductions of artwork, particularly famous works, and are generally low-cost compared to original artwork.



In typography, a point is the smallest whole unit of measure, being a subdivision of the larger pica. It is commonly abbreviated as pt. The point has long been the usual unit for measuring font size and leading and other minute items on a printed page. The original printer’s point, from the era of foundry metal typesetting and letterpress printing, varied between 0.18 and 0.4 mm. The defined length of a point varied over time and location until the late 1980s and early 1990s, when the traditional point was supplanted by the desktop publishing point (also called the PostScript point), which was defined as 1⁄72 of an inch. In either system, there are 12 points to the pica.

In metal type, the point size of the font described the size (height) of the metal body on which the typeface’s characters were cast. In digital type, letters of a font are designed around an imaginary space called an “em square”. When a point size of a font is specified, the font is scaled so that its em square has a side length of that particular length in points. Although the letters of a font usually fit within the font’s em square, there is not necessarily any size relationship between the two, so the point size does not necessarily correspond to any measurement of the size of the letters on the printed page.



Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical types or the digital equivalents. Stored letters and other symbols (called sorts in mechanical systems and glyphs in digital systems) are retrieved and ordered according to a language’s orthography for visual display.

Typesetting requires the prior process of designing a font.


Cyrillic alphabet

The Cyrillic script is an alphabetic writing system employed across Eurasia. It is based on the Early Cyrillic, which was developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the 9th century AD at the Preslav Literary School. It is the basis of alphabets used in various languages, past and present, in parts of the Balkans and Northern Eurasia, especially those of Slavic origin, and non-Slavic languages influenced by Russian. As of 2011, around 252 million people in Eurasia use it as the official alphabet for their national languages. About half of them are in Russia. Cyrillic is one of the most used writing systems in the world.

Cyrillic is derived from the Greek uncial script, augmented by letters from the older Glagolitic alphabet, including some ligatures. These additional letters were used for Old Church Slavonic sounds not found in Greek. The script is named in honor of the two Byzantine brothers, Saints Cyril and Methodius, who created the Glagolitic alphabet earlier on. Modern scholars believe that Cyrillic was developed and formalized by early disciples of Cyril and Methodius.


Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet is the script that has been used to write the Greek language since the 8th century BC. It was derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was in turn the ancestor of numerous other European and Middle Eastern scripts, including Cyrillic and Latin. Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, both in its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet today also serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields.

In its classical and modern forms, the alphabet has 24 letters, ordered from alpha to omega. Like Latin and Cyrillic, Greek originally had only a single form of each letter; it developed the letter case distinction between upper-case and lower-case forms in parallel with Latin during the modern era.

Sound values and conventional transcriptions for some of the letters differ between Ancient Greek and Modern Greek usage, owing to phonological changes in the language.

In traditional (“polytonic”) Greek orthography, vowel letters can be combined with several diacritics, including accent marks, so-called “breathing” marks, and the iota subscript. In common present-day usage for Modern Greek since the 1980s, this system has been simplified to a so-called “monotonic” convention.


Latin alphabet

The classical Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is a writing system which evolved from a western variety of the Greek alphabet called the Cumaean alphabet. The Cumaean script was descended from the Phoenician alphabet, itself a descendant of Egyptian hieroglyphs. The Cumaean alphabet was adopted and modified by the Etruscans who ruled early Rome. The Etruscan alphabet was in turn adopted and further modified by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

During the Middle Ages, the Latin alphabet was adapted to Romance languages, direct descendants of Latin, as well as to Celtic, Germanic, Baltic, and some Slavic languages. With the age of colonialism and Christian evangelism, the Latin script was spread overseas, and applied to indigenous American, Australian, Austronesian, Austroasiatic, and African languages. More recently, linguists have also tended to prefer the Latin script or the International Phonetic Alphabet (itself largely based on Latin script) when transcribing or creating written standards for non-European languages, such as the African reference alphabet.

The term Latin alphabet may refer to either the alphabet used to write Latin (as described in this article), or other alphabets based on the Latin script, which is the basic set of letters common to the various alphabets descended from the classical Latin one, such as the English alphabet. These Latin alphabets may discard letters, like the Rotokas alphabet, or add new letters, like the Danish and Norwegian alphabet. Letter shapes have changed over the centuries, including the creation for Medieval Latin of lower case forms which did not exist in the Classical period.



Letterpress printing is a technique of relief printing using a printing press. A worker composes and locks movable type into the bed of a press, inks it, and presses paper against it to transfer the ink from the type which creates an impression on the paper.

In practice, letterpress also includes other forms of relief printing with printing presses, such as wood engravings, photo-etched zinc “cuts” (plates), and linoleum blocks, which can be used alongside metal type in a single operation, as well as stereotypes and electrotypes of type and blocks. With certain letterpress units it is also possible to join movable type with slugs cast using hot metal typesetting.

Letterpress printing was the normal form of printing text from its invention by Johannes Gutenberg in the mid-15th century until the 19th century and remained in wide use for books and other uses until the second half of the 20th century. Letterpress printing remained the primary way to print and distribute information until the twentieth century, when offset printing was developed, which largely supplanted its role in printing books and newspapers. More recently, letterpress printing has seen a revival in an artisanal form.



Calligraphy is a visual art related to writing. It is the design and execution of lettering with a broad tip instrument or brush in one stroke (as opposed to built up lettering, in which the letters are drawn). A contemporary calligraphic practice can be defined as, “the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious, and skillful manner”.

Calligraphy comes from Ancient Greek kallos which translates to “beauty” and graphẽ which translates to “writing”.

Modern calligraphy ranges from functional inscriptions and designs to fine-art pieces where the letters may or may not be legible. Classical calligraphy differs from typography and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may practice both.

Calligraphy continues to flourish in the forms of wedding and event invitations, font design and typography, original hand-lettered logo design, religious art, announcements, graphic design and commissioned calligraphic art, cut stone inscriptions, and memorial documents. It is also used for props and moving images for film and television, testimonials, birth and death certificates, maps, and other written works. Some of the finest works of modern calligraphy are charters and letters patent issued by monarchs and officers of state in various countries.


Type foundry

In typography, a type foundry is a company that designs or distributes typefaces. Originally, type foundries manufactured and sold metal and wood typefaces and matrices for line-casting machines like the Linotype and Monotype machines designed to be printed on letterpress printers.

Today’s digital type foundries accumulate and distribute typefaces (typically as digitized fonts) created by type designers, who may either be freelancers operating their own independent foundry, or employed by another foundry. Type foundries may also provide custom type design services.

In England, type foundries began in 1476, when William Caxton introduced the printing press. Thereafter the City of London became a major center for the industry, until recent times when famous metal-based printing districts such as Fleet Street came to the close of their era.

The industry was particularly important in Victorian times, when education became available to all due to the new School Boards, and firms such as Charles Reed & Sons were in their heyday. The St Bride Printing Library in the City of London encourages wider public interest in the remarkable history of typefounding for the printed book and newspaper.



Typography is the art and technique of arranging type in order to make the language it forms most appealing to transparent learning and recognition.

The arrangement of type involves the selection of typefaces, point size, line length, leading (line spacing), adjusting the spaces between groups of letters (tracking) and adjusting the space between pairs of letters.

Typography comes from the Greek words typos which translates “form” and graphein which translates “to write”.

Typography is performed by typesetters, compositors, typographers, graphic designers, art directors, manga artists, comic book artists, graffiti artists, clerical workers, and anyone else who arranges type for a product.


Type design

In typography, type design is the art and process of designing typefaces.


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